Victorian Era Literature

The Victorian era, named after Queen Victoria who reigned from 1837 to 1901, was a period of significant social, political, and cultural change in England. Victorian Era Literature reflects the attitudes, values, and concerns of the time, offering a rich tapestry of works that capture the spirit and complexity of the era. This note provides an overview of Victorian literature, highlighting its characteristics, prominent authors, and major literary movements.

Victorian Era Literature Characteristics

  1. Realism and Social Criticism: Victorian literature often aimed to depict the reality of society, exposing its flaws and inequalities. The authors explored themes such as poverty, industrialization, class divisions, and the impact of rapid societal changes.
  2. Morality and Ethical Dilemmas: Victorian literature was often concerned with moral and ethical questions. Writers grappled with issues of virtue, duty, and the consequences of one’s actions. The exploration of moral choices and the consequences of immoral behavior were central themes in many works.
  3. Industrialization and its Consequences: The Industrial Revolution had a profound impact on Victorian society, and literature of the time frequently addressed its consequences. The writers depicted the struggles of the working class, the harsh conditions of factory labor, and the alienation caused by urbanization.
  4. Gender Roles and Women’s Issues: The Victorian era witnessed debates and discussions regarding women’s rights and their social roles. Literature reflected these concerns, often exploring the limitations placed on women, the suffrage movement, and the challenges faced by female protagonists striving for independence and self-determination.
  5. Gothic and Supernatural Elements: While realism dominated Victorian literature, there was also a fascination with the Gothic and the supernatural. Writers often incorporated elements of mystery, horror, and the occult into their works, creating a sense of suspense and unease.

Prominent Victorian Era Authors

  1. Charles Dickens: Known for his vivid characterizations and social criticism, Dickens captured the struggles of the poor and the injustices of the era in works such as “Oliver Twist,” “Great Expectations,” and “A Tale of Two Cities.”
  2. Charlotte Brontë: Brontë’s novel “Jane Eyre” challenged societal norms by presenting a strong-willed and independent female protagonist. It explored themes of love, morality, and the constraints imposed on women.
  3. Emily Brontë: Emily Brontë’s “Wuthering Heights” stands as a Gothic masterpiece, delving into themes of passion, revenge, and the destructive power of love.
  4. Thomas Hardy: Hardy’s novels, such as “Tess of the d’Urbervilles” and “Jude the Obscure,” depicted the struggles of individuals against social conventions, exploring themes of fate, morality, and the human condition.
  5. Oscar Wilde: Although more associated with the fin de siècle period, Wilde’s plays and wit had a significant impact on Victorian literature. His works, including “The Importance of Being Earnest” and “The Picture of Dorian Gray,” challenged societal norms and explored themes of art, aesthetics, and identity.

Major Literary Movements

  1. Romanticism: Although Romanticism originated in the late 18th century, it continued to influence Victorian literature. Romanticism emphasized imagination, emotion, and the individual’s connection to nature. Poets such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron were influential figures of this movement.
  2. Realism: Realism emerged as a dominant literary movement during the mid-19th century. It aimed to depict the reality of everyday life and often critiqued social issues and injustices. Charles Dickens, George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), and Anthony Trollope are notable authors associated with realism.
  3. Naturalism: Building upon the foundations of realism, naturalism took a more scientific approach to literature. It sought to portray characters as products of their environment and explored themes such as determinism, survival, and the darker aspects of human nature. Thomas Hardy and Emile Zola were prominent naturalist writers.
  4. Decadence and Aestheticism: Towards the end of the Victorian era, a movement known as decadence and aestheticism emerged. It focused on the pursuit of beauty, pleasure, and refined aesthetics. Last, Oscar Wilde and Algernon Charles Swinburne were key figures associated with this movement.
  5. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood: The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, formed by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt, and John Everett Millais, sought to revive the detailed and vibrant art of the early Renaissance. Their works often incorporated rich symbolism, medieval themes, and a return to nature.
  6. Sensation Fiction: Sensation fiction was a popular genre during the Victorian era, characterized by thrilling and suspenseful plots that aimed to captivate readers. Wilkie Collins, known for his novel “The Woman in White,” was a prominent author of sensation fiction.

Victorian Era Themes

The Victorian era, which spanned from 1837 to 1901 during Queen Victoria’s reign in England, was marked by a diverse range of themes that shaped the literature, art, and culture of the time. Some of the prominent themes of the Victorian era include:

1. Industrialization and Social Change

The rapid industrialization of England during the Victorian era brought about significant social and economic transformations. Literature often explored the impact of industrialization on society, the working class, and the rural-urban divide.

2. Morality and Social Values

Victorian society was characterized by a strong emphasis on morality and propriety. Literature frequently delved into moral dilemmas, the role of religion, and the societal expectations placed on individuals, particularly women.

3. Gender Roles

Discussions on gender roles, the limitations imposed on women, and the emerging feminist movement were prevalent in Victorian literature. Writers like Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Mary Wollstonecraft were instrumental in advocating for women’s rights.

4. Imperialism and Colonialism

The Victorian era coincided with the height of the British Empire’s expansion. Literature often explored themes related to imperialism, colonization, and the impact of British rule on colonies and indigenous populations.

5. Loss and Mourning

The Victorian era was characterized by a fascination with death and mourning practices. Grieving for loved ones was highly ritualized, and themes of loss and mortality were frequently explored in poetry and literature.

6. Romanticism and the Supernatural

The Victorian era retained some elements of the preceding Romantic period, with a continued interest in the supernatural, the Gothic, and mysterious tales. Writers like Charles Dickens and the Brontë sisters often incorporated elements of the supernatural in their works.

7. Social Critique and Realism in Victorian Era

Many Victorian writers, including Charles Dickens and George Eliot, used their works to critique social issues such as poverty, child labor, and education. Realism in literature aimed to portray life as it truly was, reflecting the hardships and struggles of the time.

8. Scientific Advancement in Victorian Era

The Victorian era witnessed significant scientific advancements, and literature often explored themes related to science, evolution, and the clash between religious beliefs and scientific discoveries.


Moreover, its diversity and depth, Victorian literature serves as a powerful lens through which we can examine the complexities and contradictions of the era. It offers insights into the social, cultural, and moral fabric of Victorian society, shedding light on both its achievements and its shortcomings.

In essence, Victorian Era Literature stands as a testament to the power of storytelling and the ability of literature to shape and reflect the world around us. It continues to captivate readers, provoke discussions, and inspire generations, reminding us of the enduring relevance and impact of the literary works produced during this remarkable era.