Symbolism is a literary device that uses symbols to represent ideas, concepts, or objects that have deeper meanings than what is written on the surface. In literature, symbolism can take various forms, including objects, images, figures, colors, and themes. It is a powerful tool that allows writers to express complex thoughts and emotions without directly stating them. The symbols used in literature are often universal, meaning they can evoke similar interpretations from readers across different cultures and time periods.
Symbolism in poetry can also serve to create a deeper sense of unity within a piece of literature by connecting themes, characters, and settings. In some cases, symbols can even serve as a unifying motif, tying together multiple elements of a story or poem.
Symbols used in Literature
Some common symbols used in literature include:
- Animals: In many cultures, animals have symbolic meanings. For example, in Western culture, the snake is often associated with evil, while the dove is a symbol of peace.
- Colors: Colors can have symbolic meanings in literature. For example, black is often associated with death, while white symbolizes purity.
- Objects: Objects in literature can be used as symbols to represent deeper meanings. For example, a key might symbolize the unlocking of knowledge or a character’s growth.
- Numbers: Numbers can also have symbolic meanings in literature. For example, the number three is often a symbol of the Holy Trinity, while the number seven is often a symbol of luck.
Example of Symbolism
Examples of Symbolism in Literature:
Symbolism in The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is full of symbolic elements that serve to reinforce the themes of the novel. Here are some examples:
The Green Light: The green light at the end of Daisy’s dock is a recurring symbol in the novel, representing Gatsby’s longing for the past and his unrequited love for Daisy.
The Eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg: The eyes of the billboard of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg are a symbol of the God-like omniscience and judgment in the novel. Watching over the decadence and excess of the characters.
The Valley of Ashes: The desolate area of the Valley of Ashes, located between West Egg and New York City. It symbolizes the moral decay and the decline of the American Dream.
The Color Yellow: Yellow is used throughout the novel to symbolize corruption, decay, and moral decay. For example, the yellow car that runs over and kills Myrtle Wilson symbolizes the decadence and recklessness of the wealthy characters in the novel.
The Party Scenes: The lavish and extravagant parties hosted by Gatsby symbolize the excess and decadence of the era. As well as Gatsby’s desperate attempt to win back Daisy’s love.
Symbolism in Macbeth
William Shakespeare’s play “Macbeth” is filled with symbolic elements that add depth and meaning to the story. Here are some examples:
- Blood: Blood is a recurring symbol throughout the play, representing guilt, betrayal, and violence. For example, Macbeth is haunted by the sight of the blood on his hands after he kills King Duncan.
- Night and Darkness: Night and darkness are symbols of evil and the supernatural, such as the witches’ predictions and their incantations in the dark.
- Daggers: Daggers symbolize the violent and deadly intent of the characters, particularly Macbeth’s increasing determination to kill to secure and keep his power.
- Banquo’s Ghost: Banquo’s ghost, which appears to Macbeth at the banquet scene, symbolizes Macbeth’s guilt and fear of being caught, as well as his increasing paranoia and loss of reason.
- The Crown: The crown symbolizes power and ambition, as Macbeth is driven by his desire for the crown and his ruthless pursuit of it.
- Sleep: Sleep is a recurring theme in the play, symbolizing peace and innocence. Macbeth’s guilt causes him to lose sleep and drives him to madness, while Lady Macbeth tormented by her own guilt and sleepwalks, revealing her hidden guilt.
These symbols add depth and complexity to the play and serve to reinforce the themes of ambition, guilt, and the corrupting influence of power.
Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel “The Scarlet Letter” is rich in symbolic elements that add depth and meaning to the story. Here are some examples:
- The Scarlet Letter “A”: The letter “A” symbolizes adultery, but it also takes on other meanings as the novel progresses, such as “Angel” or “Able.” The letter becomes a symbol of Hester Prynne’s identity and a source of shame and persecution. But it also serves as a symbol of her strength and resilience.
- The Pearl: The pearl that Hester’s daughter, Pearl, symbolizes the sin that Hester has committed and the burden of guilt she carries. But it also symbolizes hope, as Hester views Pearl as a symbol of God’s grace.
- The Forest: The forest is a symbol of freedom and independence, representing the escape from the strict and oppressive society of the Puritan settlement.
- The Rose Bush: The rose bush outside the prison door symbolizes the beauty and fragility of life and Hester’s hope for a better future.
- The Meteor: The meteor that appears in the sky symbolizes supernatural and divine judgment, representing the guilt and fear that consumes the Puritan settlement.
These symbols work together to create a complex and nuanced narrative that explores themes of sin, guilt, shame, and redemption.
Symbolism in The Road
Cormac McCarthy’s novel “The Road” is a haunting and bleak story filled with symbolic elements that add depth and meaning to the story. Here are some examples:
- The Road: The road symbolizes the journey of the father and son and their search for a better future, as well as their struggle to survive in a harsh and unforgiving world.
- Fire: Fire is a symbol of hope and life, representing the father’s determination to protect his son and keep him safe. As well as the warmth and comfort that the fire provides in a world of darkness and cold.
- The Cart: The cart that the father and son use to carry their belongings symbolizes their burden and their dependence on each other. As well as the father’s determination to keep his son safe and protected.
- The Cannibals: The cannibals in the story symbolize the evil and darkness that has taken over the world, representing the loss of humanity and the struggle for survival.
- The Boy: The boy symbolizes innocence, hope, and the future. As he represents the possibility of renewal and the continuation of humanity.
These symbols add depth and complexity to the story and serve to reinforce the themes of hope, survival, and the struggle for humanity in a world devastated by disaster.
Symbolism in The Raven
Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven” is a classic work of American literature that is rich in symbolic elements. Here are some examples:
- The Raven: The raven symbolizes death, mourning, and loss, as well as the mysterious and unknown. The raven’s repetition of the word “Nevermore” is a symbol of the speaker’s despair and hopelessness.
- The Chamber: The chamber in which the speaker is located symbolizes his mental state. As he is in a state of grief and mourning.
- The Bust of Pallas: The bust of Pallas symbolizes wisdom and knowledge. As well as the speaker’s desire to understand the meaning behind the raven’s visit.
- The Window: The window symbolizes the speaker’s desire for escape, both from his grief and from the raven’s haunting presence.
- The Lamp: The lamp symbolizes light and knowledge. As well as the speaker’s attempt to dispel the darkness and mystery surrounding the raven’s visit.
These symbols work together to create a haunting and eerie atmosphere that reflects the speaker’s growing desperation and madness, as well as his struggle to come to terms with his grief and loss.
Symbolism in The Waste Land
T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Waste Land” is a complex and fragmented work of modernist literature that is rich in symbolic elements. Here are some examples:
- The Waste Land: The wasteland symbolizes the spiritual and cultural emptiness of modern society, reflecting the disillusionment and loss of meaning that characterized the post-World War I era.
- The Fisher King: The Fisher King symbolizes the wounded and impotent leader of the modern world, representing the loss of purpose and the decline of civilization.
- The Thames River: The Thames River symbolizes the flow of time and the cycle of life and death. As well as the continuity of history.
- The Game of Chess: The game of chess symbolizes the struggle between life and death. As well as the futility of human effort and the ultimate triumph of death.
- The Mystic Rose: The mystic rose symbolizes the possibility of spiritual renewal and the hope of redemption. As well as the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
These symbols throughout the poem create a rich and complex narrative. That reflects the fragmented and chaotic nature of modern life. As well as the search for meaning and the possibility of spiritual renewal.
In conclusion, symbolism is a powerful and versatile tool in literature. It allows writers to convey complex ideas, emotions, and themes in a concise and imaginative way. Whether it takes the form of objects, images, figures, or colors, symbolism adds depth and meaning to literature. Thus making it a timeless and universal device.